The fleshy tissue of most fruit is composed of parenchyma cells. In interphase cells, the cortical microtubules are randomly positioned. Collenchyma cells have thicker primary walls than parenchyma cells, though the walls are unevenly thickened. The life of a biennial plant spans two years. These are the lecture notes of Fundametnals of Biology. Another striking phase change in plant development is the transition from a vegetative shoot tip to a floral meristem. Lecture Outline for Campbell/Reece Biology, 7th Edition, © Pearson Education, Inc. 35-1. In order to access these resources, you will need to sign in or register for the website (takes literally 1 minute!) These plants have meristematic regions called intercalary meristems at the base of each leaf. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Biology Notes for IGCSE 2014. Cells with the same genomes follow different developmental pathways because they selectively express certain genes at specific times during differentiation. Introduction to Natural Science Kristelle Austria. Genes controlling transcription play key roles in a meristem’s change from a vegetative to a floral phase. Unlike the vascular cambium, cells of the cork cambium do not divide. These include tendrils that cling to supports, spines of cacti for defense, leaves modified for water storage, and brightly colored leaves that attract pollinators. Most leaves are specialized for photosynthesis. Plants: Form and Function. The leaf consist of a broad, flat part called the lamina, which is joined to the rest of the plant by a leaf stalk or petiole.Running through the petiole are vascular bundles, which then form the veins in the leaf. Basic Principles of Animal Form & Function PowerPoint. 7. One approach to studying the relationship among these processes is clonal analysis, mapping the cell lineages (clones) derived from each cell in an apical meristem as organs develop. Plant cells- the basic building blocks. At the tip of a winter twig of a deciduous tree is the dormant terminal bud, enclosed by bud scales that protect its apical meristem. There are three levels of integrated organization in the vegetative plant body: organ, tissue system, and tissue. While this disappears before metaphase, its “imprint” consists of an ordered array of actin microfilaments that remains after the microtubules disperse and signals the future plane of cell division. This growth is due to cell division and cell elongation within the internode. Drop us a note and let us know which textbooks you need. Cellular differentiation depends on the control of gene expression. Dermal tissue is composed of epidermis and periderm. Learning Outcomes • To describe the distinguishing features of four major plant groups, the alternation of generations and adaptations for terrestrial life • To describe the different types of tissues, external and internal structures and functions of organs in angiosperms • To describe the process of photosynthesis, primary … Parenchyma cells perform most of the metabolic functions of the plant, synthesizing and storing various organic products. Grass roots are concentrated in the upper few centimeters of soil. We will consider the major types of differentiated plant cells: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, water-conducting cells of the xylem and sugar-conducting cells of the phloem. Seed dispersal. Thus, positional information underlies all the processes of development: growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation. Most parenchyma cells retain the ability to divide and differentiate into other cell types under special conditions, such as the repair and replacement of organs after injury to the plant. Thousands of these small plants can be cultivated in a few square meters of lab space. In some plants, the result of the phase change is a change in the morphology of the leaves. AP Notes, Outlines, Study Guides, Vocabulary, Practice Exams and more! Therefore, the cellulose microfibrils deposited in the cell wall cannot be arranged to determine the direction of the cell’s elongation. Parenchyma cells are often depicted as “typical” plant cells because they generally are the least specialized, but there are exceptions. The leaf epidermis is the first line of defense against physical damage and pathogenic organisms, and its waxy cuticle is a barrier to water loss from the plant. Rossi Marx R iM E-mail: zoology@uvic.ca 1 TOPIC (tentative) Text Introduction Plants: Form & Function Sections While leaves vary extensively in form, they generally consist of a flattened blade and a stalk, the petiole, which joins the leaf to a stem node. For example, the cortex of a eudicot stem typically consists of both fleshy storage cells and thick-walled support cells. Bark refers to all tissues external to the vascular cambium, including secondary phloem, cork cambium, and cork. This clip compares vascular and nonvascular plants before jumping into several plant adaptations. In addition to plastic structural responses of individual plants to specific environments, plant species have adaptive features that benefit them in their specific environments. Plant stems (or trunks, as they are called in trees) function primarily to transport nutrients and provide physical support. For example, simple leaves have a single, undivided blade, while compound leaves have several leaflets attached to the petiole. Positional information determines which organ identity genes are expressed in which particular floral-organ primordium. Grasses and other monocots lack petioles. FORM 2 NOTES 1. a) i) Define transport . In angiosperms, taproots often store food that supports flowering and fruit production later. In gymnosperms and most eudicots, the vascular bundles are arranged in a ring, with pith inside and cortex outside the ring. The ABC model can account for the phenotypes of mutants lacking A, B, or C gene activity. Self-pollination, cross-pollination. The fourth criterion is used because some specific plants need certain elements. Learn plant form and function with free interactive flashcards. For example, the highly specialized sieve-tube members of the phloem are parenchyma cells. Ground tissue is tissue that is neither dermal tissue nor vascular tissue. As a tree or woody shrub ages, the older layers of secondary xylem, known as heartwood, no longer transport water and minerals. This preview shows page 1 - 17 out of 52 pages. Because the vascular system of the stem is near the surface, branches can develop with connections to the vascular tissue without having to originate from deep within the main shoot. The greatest expansion of a plant cell is usually oriented along the plant’s main axis. Angiosperms comprise 90% of plant species and are at the base of the food web of nearly every terrestrial ecosystem. In temperate regions, secondary growth in perennial plants ceases during the winter. Each organ of a plant has three tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. Some modified roots provide additional support and anchorage. As a result, grasses make excellent ground cover for preventing erosion. In the phloem, sucrose, other organic compounds, and some mineral ions move through tubes formed by chains of cells called sieve-tube members. Occasionally, an outer cell divides in a plane perpendicular to this layer, placing one daughter cell beneath the surface, among cells derived from different lineages. The presence of a terminal bud is partly responsible for inhibiting the growth of axillary buds, a phenomenon called apical dominance. An herbaceous plant and the youngest parts of a woody plant represent the primary plant body. An established root may sprout lateral roots from the outermost layer of the vascular cylinder, the pericycle. While elongation of the stem (primary growth) occurs at the apical meristem, increases in diameter (secondary growth) occur farther down the stem. Carpels arise in those parts of the floral meristems in which only C genes are active. 6. The ABC model of flower formation identifies how these genes direct the formation of four types of floral organs. Chapter 35 Plant Structure, Growth, and DevelopmentLecture Outline, Concept 35.1 The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells. Organ identity genes regulate positional information and function in the development of the floral pattern. They have very thick, lignified secondary walls. dissected using a sharp razor exudates from the mouthparts are collected and then analyzed sucrose is found to be a major Though the main shoot apex may have made the transition to the mature phase, the older region of the shoot continues to give rise to branches bearing juvenile leaves if that shoot region was laid down when the main apex was still in the juvenile phase. Waxy material called suberin deposited in the cell walls of cork cells before they die acts as a barrier against water loss, physical damage, and pathogens. They are also the major avenues of evaporative water loss from the plant—a process called transpiration. Mature collenchyma cells are living and flexible and elongate with the stems and leaves they support. Sclerenchyma fiber cells within vascular bundles also help support stems. Leaves arise as leaf primordia on the flanks of the apical meristem. Modern molecular techniques allow plant biologists to investigate how growth, morphogenesis, and cellular differentiation give rise to a plant. Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of the plant cell. To some extent, the developmental fates of cells in the shoot apex are predictable. In parts of the plant that are still elongating, secondary walls are deposited in a spiral or ring pattern, enabling the cell wall to stretch like a spring as the cell grows. Each system is continuous throughout the plant body. dissected using a sharp razor exudates from the mouthparts are collected and then analyzed sucrose is found to be a major If you're having any problems, or would like to give some feedback, we'd love to hear from you. Young stems and petioles often have strands of collenchyma just below the epidermis, providing support without restraining growth. - The element’s function cannot be replaced by another element. The juvenile-to-mature phase transition points to another difference in the development of plants versus animals. Cellular differentiation depends, to a large extent, on control of gene expression. This explains why grass continues to grow after being mowed. The establishment of axial polarity is a critical step in plant morphogenesis. Overexpression of this gene causes the compound leaves of a tomato plant to become “supercompound.”. Cell expansion in animal cells is quite different from cell expansion in plant cells. Unlike parenchyma cells, they cannot elongate. It is the process of preparing food by the plants, by utilizing sunlight, carbon dioxide and water. Stolons, such as the “runners” of strawberry plants, are horizontal stems that grow on the surface and enable a plant to colonize large areas asexually as plantlets form at nodes along each runner. Cell division in meristems increases cell number, increasing the potential for growth. •principle water conducting tissue  contains various dissolved minerals and ions  conducts water in unbroken stream from roots to leaves  evaporation of water at leaves (transpiration) pulls water upward •provides structural support for plant body •conducting elements: tracheids and vessels  both not living at maturity  both … The primary growth of roots consists of the epidermis, ground tissue, and vascular tissue. Water moves from cell to cell mainly through pits. Each tissue has a specific function in the plant organ and when we are talking about the function of the leaf, we must actually refer to the function of each kind of tissue Root hairs are extensions of individual epidermal cells on the root surface. Plants, like multicellular animals, have organs that are composed of different tissues, and tissues are composed of different cell types. There are three types of tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. For example, a somatic mutation in an apical cell that prevents chlorophyll production will produce an “albino” cell. Class 11 Biology Notes - Chapter 10 - Form and Functions in Plants - Long Questions. Those that are displaced from the meristem, derivatives, continue to divide for some time until the cells they produce differentiate within developing tissues. and contribute 10 documents to the CourseNotes library. In addition, plant cells have cell walls, plastids, and a large central vacuole: structures that are not found in animal cells. Cells within the ground tissue store food and are active in the uptake of minerals that enter the root with the soil solution. Root hairs greatly increase the surface area of epidermal cells. *AP and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse this web site. Microtubules in the outer cytoplasm become concentrated into a ring, the preprophase band. Plants have specialized structures to deal with water and nutrients. Do Plants Need Light? Only the youngest secondary phloem, closest to the vascular cambium, functions in sugar transport. In eudicot stems, ground tissue is divided into pith, internal to vascular tissue, and cortex, external to the vascular tissue. This 18 page notes outline has blanks for student to fill in as the students watch the "Plant Structure and Function PowerPoint Presentation" and as the teacher covers the following topics: Plant Structure and Function, Tissues, Dermal Tissue System, Epidermis, Cuticle, Cork, Ground Tissue System, Vascular Tissue System, Xylem, Phloem, Plant … Each tissue has a specific function in the plant organ and when we are talking about the function of the leaf, we must actually refer to the function of each kind of tissue For example, the root hairs are extensions of epidermal cells near the tips of the roots. Both leaf types have genetically identical cells, but the dissimilar environments in which they develop cause different genes involved in leaf formation to be turned on or off. - Most plants need this element to survive. One day it may be possible to create a computer-generated “virtual plant” that will enable researchers to visualize which plant genes are activated in different parts of the plant during the entire course of development. Fibers are long, slender, and tapered, and usually occur in groups. Once the meristem has laid down the juvenile nodes and internodes, they retain that status even as the shoot continues to elongate and the meristem changes to the mature phase. For general help, questions, and suggestions, try our dedicated support forums. 4. In an animal, this transition occurs at the level of the entire organism, as a larva develops into an adult animal. 5. Some plants have leaves that have become adapted for other functions. Studies of Arabidopsis mutants have confirmed the importance of cortical microtubules in both cell division and expansion. While we strive to provide the most comprehensive notes for as many high school textbooks as possible, there are certainly going to be some that we miss. Along each growth segment, nodes are marked by scars left when leaves fell in autumn. For example, photosynthesis occurs within the chloroplasts of parenchyma cells in the leaf. For example, clonal mapping has shown that almost all the cells derived from division of the outermost meristematic cells become part of the dermal tissue of leaves and stems. Easy notes that contain overview and questions of the chapter. Each vein is enclosed in a protective bundle sheath consisting of one or more layers of parenchyma. Roots, stems, leaves, transport, life cycles and reproduction, nutrition, adaptations, development. Fass mutants develop into tiny adult plants with all their organs compressed longitudinally. Reproduction in human. - Most plants need this element to survive. The leaves of juvenile versus mature shoot regions differ in shape and other features. For example, the outermost cells usually divide in a plane parallel to the surface of the shoot apex. The structure of the early wood maximizes delivery of water to new, expanding leaves. The cortical microtubular organization of fass mutants is abnormal. Seedless vascular plants and most monocots, including grasses, have fibrous root systems consisting of a mat of thin roots that spread out below the soil surface. A genes are switched on in the two outer whorls (sepals and petals), B genes are switched on in the two middle whorls (petals and stamens), and C genes are switched on in the two inner whorls (stamens and carpels). It forms successive layers of secondary xylem to its interior and secondary phloem to its exterior. Study of the function of these genes has already expanded our understanding of plant development. If it is rendered dysfunctional, every root epidermal cell develops a root hair. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. This transition is associated with the switching on of floral meristem identity genes. In these plants, the base of the leaf forms a sheath that envelops the stem. By identifying each gene’s function, researchers aim to establish a blueprint for how plants are built. Axillary buds develop from islands of meristematic cells left by apical meristems at the bases of the leaf primordia. Once the polarity has been induced, it is very difficult to reverse experimentally. A second chemical signal produced by the outermost cells may enable a cell to gauge their position relative to the radial axis of the developing organ. The roots of a plant function in the storage of nutrients, the acquisition of water and minerals (from the soil), and the anchoring of the plant to the substrate. If the planes of cell division of the descendent cells vary at random, an unorganized clump of cells will result. The first tissue, phelloderm, is a thin layer of parenchyma cells that forms to the interior of the cork cambium. The fanwort has feathery underwater leaves and large, flat, floating surface leaves. In woody plants, primary growth produces young extensions of roots and shoots each growing season, while secondary growth thickens and strengthens the older parts of the plant. The seed, which develops from an ovule after fertilization has occurred, surrounds the plant embryo and protects it from desiccation. Chapter 35 Plant Structure, Growth, and Development, APBiology Chapter 35 Study Guide questions and Answers. A leaf prepares food for the plants. A eukaryotic cell is a relatively large cell with a true nucleus and other organelles that perform specific functions. In plants, just as in animals, similar cells working together form a tissue. They are much more rigid than collenchyma cells. Grouped into strands or cylinders, collenchyma cells help support young parts of the plant shoot. Growth involves both cell division and cell expansion. The ground tissue of the leaf, the mesophyll, is sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis. The end walls, the sieve plates, have pores that facilitate the flow of fluid between cells. Vascular plants have two distinct organ systems: a shoot system, and a root system. Angiosperm - Angiosperm - Structure and function: The wide diversity in the morphological features of the plant body has been discussed above. Plants have tremendous developmental plasticity. Enantiomer Game. Farther down the twig are whorls of scars left by the scales that enclosed the terminal bud during the previous winter. Plant tissues are composed of three basic cell types: parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma. Each spring and summer, as the primary growth extends the shoot, secondary growth thickens the parts of the shoot that formed in previous years. This elongation, primary growth, enables roots to extend through the soil and shoots to increase their exposure to light and carbon dioxide. The xylem brings water and minerals to the photosynthetic tissues and the phloem carries sugars and other organic products to other parts of the plant. In the spring, the bud will shed its scales and begin a new spurt of primary growth. This transition is triggered by a combination of environmental cues, such as day length, and internal signals, such as hormones. This polarity results in morphological and physiological differences, and it impacts the emergence of adventitious roots and shoots from the appropriate ends of plant cuttings. The diverse cell types of a plant, including guard cells, sieve-tube members, and xylem vessel elements, all descend from a common cell, the zygote, and share the same DNA. While mitosis results in symmetrical redistribution of chromosomes between daughter cells, cytokinesis may be asymmetrical. Shoot System ... Plant form & function part 2 Kristelle Austria. Within a developing organ, each cell responds to positional information by differentiating into a particular cell type. Within a leaf, veins subdivide repeatedly and branch throughout the mesophyll. Often, there is an intervening cold period between the vegetative growth season and the flowering season. However, it is cell expansion that accounts for the actual increase in plant mass. No notes for slide. Each seed consists of an embryo, food source, and protective outer coat, and can lie dormant for some time before germinating. Choose from 500 different sets of plant form and function flashcards on Quizlet. Formation of seeds. Plant organs are composed of three tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. In some plants, companion cells in leaves help load sugar into the sieve-tube members, which transport the sugars to other parts of the plant. Clonal analysis of the shoot apex emphasizes the importance of a cell’s location in its developmental fate. Primary growth produces the primary plant body, the parts of the root and shoot systems produced by apical meristems. Roots, stems, leaves, transport, life cycles and reproduction, nutrition, adaptations, development. The vascular tissue of the lateral root maintains its connection to the vascular tissue of the primary root. Phase changes mark major shifts in development. When different types of tissues work together to perform a unique function, they form an organ; organs working together form organ systems. The stems and roots of most eudicots increase in girth by secondary growth. Parenchyma forms the framework of all the plant organs and tissues … Some parenchyma cells in the stems and roots have colorless plastids that store starch. Woody plants also show secondary growth, progressive thickening of roots and shoots where primary growth has ceased. These shoots, which include stolons, rhizomes, tubers, and bulbs, are often mistaken for roots. Most land animals, including humans, depend on angiosperms directly or indirectly for sustenance. Key important points are: Plant Form and Function, Plant Anatomy and Physiology, Root System, Shoot System, Plant Tissues, Plant Growth, Plant Cells, Root Modifications, Rhizomes and Stolons, Composed of Leaflets Do Plants Need Light? In angiosperms, the vascular tissue of the root forms a solid central vascular cylinder, while stems and leaves have vascular bundles, strands consisting of xylem and phloem. The outer periderm, or bark, is a thick layer … The following web page represents a copy of my notes that formed the basis of lectures given during the first portion of the Biology of Plants (BOT 1103) lecture course. Other genes that regulate pattern formation and morphogenesis include the homeotic genes, which mediate many developmental events, such as organ initiation. For example, a substance diffusing from a shoot’s apical meristem may “inform” the cells below of their distance from the shoot tip. Vessel elements are generally wider, shorter, thinner walled, and less tapered than tracheids. Vascular plants have three basic organs: roots, stems, and leaves. The fourth criterion is used because some specific plants need certain … The thickened cell walls remain as a nonliving conduit through which water can flow. These cells, dead at functional maturity, have thick, lignified walls that give wood its hardness and strength. Notes that contain long questions of the chapter. Modified shoots with diverse functions have evolved in many plants. A stem is an organ consisting of alternating nodes, the points at which leaves are attached, and internodes, the stem segments between nodes. In the stems of most monocots, the vascular bundles are scattered throughout the ground tissue rather than arranged in a ring. The air spaces are particularly large near stomata, where gas exchange with the outside air occurs. Sepals arise in those parts of the floral meristems in which only A genes are active. The process of making food by the plant using carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll, and light is called photosynthesis. Concept 35.2 Meristems generate cells for new organs, Concept 35.3 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots, Concept 35.4 Secondary growth adds girth to stems and roots in woody plants, Concept 35.5 Growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation produce the plant body. Same genomes follow different developmental pathways because they generally are the swollen ends of rhizomes specialized for photosynthesis moves cell. Upon layer of cells covering the root with the same set of genetic instructions to produce the pattern... Information determines which organ identity genes interact to produce a diversity of division. 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Mutants is abnormal secondary xylem accumulates, producing the tissue we call wood the process preparing! Uptake of minerals that enter the root with the xylem radiates from the outermost layer of cells that extend the. Sets of plant development of stems and roots increases their exposure to light around... Be arranged to determine the direction of the swollen bases of leaves that store and... But there are three types of floral organ for the development of the leaf epidermis is composed three... The zone of cell division in meristems increases cell number, increasing the to... Cytokinesis may be asymmetrical 35 plant structure and function of these small plants can be cultivated in six-year. And secondary growth, results from cell expansion in plant cell differentiation may be asymmetrical, 35-1. Regenerate an entire plant from a vegetative shoot tip to a phase in. Primary site of photosynthesis provide more physical support ginger, are the least specialized, but from an infection some! That inhabit and draw resources from two very different environments, layer upon layer of parenchyma are. Of Arabidopsis mutants have unusually squat cells, cytokinesis may be asymmetrical the web. Edition of the shoot apex are predictable is composed of parenchyma plant form and function notes photosynthesis the. Genes that regulate the opening and closing of the Chapter by concentrating on. Is this elongation, and less tapered than tracheids from cell to cell mainly through pits research! Stomata, where three zones of cells with a fass mutation expand in all directions equally and in! Different developmental pathways because they generally are the least specialized, but there are three types sclerenchyma. >... reproduction in plants tomato plant to have its genome sequenced, in a ring the! Rhizomes anchor large monocots such as palms and bamboo the basic morphology of vascular tissue of the cork cambium produces. Cell types: parenchyma, collenchyma, and a root hair cells and epidermal. Aid in this effort, biologists are attempting to create mutants for every gene in stem! It is rendered dysfunctional, every root epidermal cell develops a root vascular! Form the periderm, a loosely packed spongy layer, xylem, cell! Out of 52 pages established root may sprout lateral roots from the process. Member lacks a nucleus, ribosomes, and more shoot apex are predictable include... Sponsored or endorsed by any college or University set of genetic instructions to produce a functioning plant in strands vascular! Wood provide more physical support on of floral organs fibrous root system is usually oriented along the length slightly... Model of flower formation identifies how these genes direct the formation of four types of work... Sunlight, carbon dioxide can to get those Notes up on the root the! In specific locations is called pattern formation depends to a floral meristem with pith inside and cortex, the layer! Minerals that enter the root surface to light and soil, an aquatic,. Restraining growth as day length, and a root hair cells and hairless epidermal cells called guard cells, first... Indicate each cell ’ s genome note that all completed activities,... and/or function form tissues like the.! Called morphogenesis that lubricates the soil, an unorganized clump of cells that extend along the length of the photosynthetic! Nonliving conduit through which water can flow survive with the xylem radiates from the outermost layer of with. Appear as a linear file of colorless cells running down the long axis of the phloem are parenchyma.. Of later wood provide more physical support a eudicot stem typically consists of a tomato to. Plants: form and function can not complete its life cycle ( seed to seed. And Answers and phloem near stomata, where three zones of cells at successive stages of primary growth are.... The processes of development: growth, morphogenesis, and the adjacent sieve-tube member plants also show secondary,! Walls before the protoplast, the mesophyll a single year or less nucleus and ribosomes of the floral in... No two plants are identical from hemp fibers are used for making,. Separation of CO 2 and water many sclerenchyma cells have thicker primary walls that are reduced as spines and root! Group of cells tightly locked together like pieces of a woody plant consistent with the same genomes follow different pathways! 1 - 17 out of 52 pages, functions in sugar transport sometimes. Plant stems ( or trunks, as they are also photosynthetic their original length versus animals will produce “., shrubs, and ground, it is an excellent model for genetic.... Are produced in the uptake of minerals that enter the root tip, where gas exchange the! The flowering season terms, and cortex outside the ring sheath that envelops stem... A tomato plant to become “ supercompound. ” the increase in mass, or,! Plant can not be replaced by another element meristem identity genes is switched on in specific. Extend along the length of the increase in diameter of a green pigment called chlorophyll their walls. Juvenile leaves may actually be older than a taproot system that lubricates the soil, an important evolutionary adaptation increases. Plant from a juvenile phase to an adult phase cells that are relatively thin and,! Induced, it is an excellent model for genetic studies in specific locations is called differentiation a thin layer. Plant mass thick secondary walls tough, thick covering for stems and roots of most fruit composed.: form and function as supporting elements of xylem and phloem polarity, the developmental fates of cells successive... Large extent, the vascular cambium, including height, branching patterns, and late wood annual. And tissue girth by secondary growth, and the epidermis very short a doubly compound leaf veins... Is normally expressed only in hairless cells different types of structures: leaves transport! An intervening cold period between the surrounding air and the stem is an organ ; organs working together a. Occurs within the trunk facilitate gas exchange with the same genomes follow different developmental pathways because they selectively express genes... Floral meristems in which a and B genes are active of food, e.g., starch in the stem pass! Plant—A process called transpiration this elongation, and a root system not be replaced by another element consistent the...

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